Rates of participation and the value of holdings differs significantly across strata of income. In the bottom quintile of income, 5. 5% of households directly own stock and 10. 7% hold stocks indirectly in the form of retirement accounts. The top decile of income has a direct participation rate of 47. 5% and an indirect participation rate in the form of retirement accounts of 89. 6%. The median value of directly owned stock in the bottom quintile of income is $4,000 and is $78,600 in the top decile of income as of 2007. The median value of indirectly held stock in the form of retirement accounts for the same two groups in the same year is $6,300 and $214,800 respectively. Since the Great Recession of 2008 households in the bottom half of the income distribution have lessened their participation rate both directly and indirectly from 53. 2% in 2007 to 48. 8% in 2013, while over the same time period households in the top decile of the income distribution slightly increased participation 91. 7% to 92. 1%. The mean value of direct and indirect holdings at the bottom half of the income distribution moved slightly downward from $53,800 in 2007 to $53,600 in 2013. In the top decile, mean value of all holdings fell from $982,000 to $969,300 in the same time. The mean value of all stock holdings across the entire income distribution is valued at $269,900 as of 2013.